Basic concepts

Part 1

Part 2

Part 1

Part 2

Structure of lessons



To Home Page


  1. Teaching aim [The part played by teaching and learning in the child's becoming a proper adult].

    1. Lesson aim [The role of the teacher in a particular lesson (e.g., his form of presentation) in order to achieve a particular aim (unlocking an aspect of reality)].
    2. Learning aim [The role of the child in accomplishing a particular effect (i.e., what he, as a learning child, must achieve) from the lesson].

  2. Actualizing foreknowledge [Existing meaningful and relevant experiences are brought forth].

    1. Becoming aware of foreknowledge [The child is made aware of the relevant meaningful experiences at his disposal].
    2. Eliciting foreknowledge [Bring to light the relevant essentials from the experiential world of the child upon which there can be further building].
    3. Enlivening foreknowledge [Attunement to relevant meanings and effort to actualize them].

  3. Stating the problem [Posing a meaningful question to the child which makes him aware that he has a problem].

    1. Leading to formulate the problem [The child is helped to state the learning aim, as defined by the teacher, in the form of a question].
    2. Experiencing the lesson problem [The problem posed has to be experienced by the child as "meaningful-for-me"].
    3. Experiencing the inadequacy of knowledge [A feeling and knowing awareness arises that his existing knowledge is incomplete for the solution of the problem to emerge or to break-through].
    4. Accepting responsibility for the solution to the problem [It is decided that as great and active a part as possible will be taken to actualize everything that must occur subsequently].

  4. Exposing the new content [Exposing or unlocking new knowledge].

    1. Reducing to essentials [Search for and present the essential, core facts of the learning content relevant to the solution of the problem].
    2. Perceiving relations [Meaningful connections among the core facts are sought].
    3. Insight into concepts [The teacher represents the essentials and the child participates in order to form concepts].

  5. Actualizing (controlling) the lesson content [Mastery or control of the child's insights regarding the reduced content].

    1. Principle of activity [Actualization of: the appeal to do something; present the content; work together; appeal to the child to learn; decide on self-activity and encourage independent activity].
    2. Principle of individualization [Actualization of: being open to the teacher; respecting the child's uniqueness; encouraging the child to achieve and to be someone himself; acquiring one's own style of learning].
    3. Principle of socialization [Actualization of: established relationships; intervention regarding the child's achievement; experience of a stable class context and an initiation of working together].
    4. Principle of tempo differentiation [Take part in the actualization of the essentials of the lesson structure and the presented content with an optimal individual work-tempo].

  6. Functionalizing [Transfer of acquired knowledge by using it (making it functional) in new situations].

    1. Exercising insights [Insights which have been made one's own are practiced and cultivated in meaningful ways].
    2. Integrating the new knowledge [Foreknowledge and newly acquired knowledge are synthesized, via remembering, to make them a meaningful unity].
    3. Applying to the life-world [Determine the meanings that the newly acquired knowledge and insights have for his own way of living].

  7. Evaluating [Judge the extent to which the child has an insight into the content and can apply it].

    1. Testing as orientation [Clarify the present status of insights with the aim of planning what to do next].
    2. Differentiating instruction [Determine the role of the individual learner's interests, experiences, etc., in carrying out tasks].
    3. Carrying out the tasks [Encourage the child to carry out the tasks in the most effective ways].

To "Fundamental Pedagogics"